The United Kingdom is a state made up of the historic countries of England, Wales, and Scotland, as well as Northern Ireland. It is known as the home of both modern parliamentary democracy and the Industrial Revolution.
Two world wars and the end of empire diminished its role in the 20th century, and the 2016 referendum vote to leave the European Union has raised significant questions about the country’s global role.
Nonetheless, the United Kingdom remains an economic and military power with great political and cultural influence around the world.
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Head of state: Queen Elizabeth II
Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II ascended to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1952 upon the death of her father, George VI.
In September 2015, she became Britain’s longest-reigning monarch, surpassing the record of her great-great grandmother, Queen Victoria.
She is also head of state of 16 independent countries including Canada and Australia.
As a constitutional monarch, her role in the legislative process is largely ceremonial.
Prime minister: Theresa May
Theresa May became prime minister in July 2016 on the resignation of her predecessor and fellow Conservative, David Cameron, in the wake of a referendum vote for Britain to leave the European Union.
Mrs May backed Mr Cameron’s support for Britain to remain in the EU, but now faces the task of overseeing its exit.
Her task is made more difficult by her calling an early election in June 2017, which led to the surprise result of a hung parliament and a fragile Conservative minority government, kept in office through an agreement with the Democratic Unionist Party of Northern Ireland.
The UK has a strong tradition of public service broadcasting and an international reputation for creative programme-making.
The BBC began daily radio broadcasts in 1922 and quickly came to play a pivotal role in national life. The corporation is funded by a licence fee, which every household with a TV set must pay.
Hundreds of privately-owned radio and TV stations now compete with the BBC for listeners and viewers.
There are many national and local newspapers, but print circulations have been sliding while online readership has surged.
There are more than 60 million internet users, and most British people have a social media presence.
Some key dates in British history:
1914 – Outbreak of World War I. UK enters hostilities against Germany.
1918 – War ends in November with armistice. The number of UK war dead runs to several hundred thousand.
1921 – UK agrees to the foundation of the Irish Free State. Northern Ireland remains part of the UK.
1924 – First UK government led by the Labour party under Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald.
1939 – Germany invades Poland. UK declares war on Germany.
1940 – Winston Churchill becomes prime minister.
1944 – Allied troops invade France from Britain on D-Day (6th June) and begin to fight their way towards Germany.
1945 – Germany surrenders. Labour leader Clement Atlee is elected prime minister to replace Winston Churchill. The new Labour government introduces the welfare state.
1945 – The UK becomes a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
1948 – National Health Service is established.
1949 – The UK becomes a founder member of Nato.
1960s – Decolonisation of former British-controlled territories gathers pace.
1969-1998 – British troops quell communal unrest in Northern Ireland.
1973 – The UK joins the European Economic Community.
1979 – Conservative Margaret Thatcher begins move towards deregulation of economy.
2017 – Britain formally applies to leave the European Union after a referendum vote the previous year.
*The information is derived through http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18023389
Across the UK there are five stages of education: early years, primary, secondary,
Further Education (FE) and Higher Education (HE). Education is compulsory for all
children between the ages of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and 16. FE is not compulsory
and covers non-advanced education which can be taken at further (including tertiary)
education colleges and HE institutions (HEIs). The fifth stage, HE, is study beyond
GCE A levels and their equivalent which, for most full-time students, takes place in
universities and other HEIs and colleges.
Early Years Education
In England since September 2010, all three and four-year-olds are entitled to 15
hours of free nursery education for 38 weeks of the year. Early Years education
takes place in a variety of settings including state nursery schools, nursery classes
and reception classes within primary schools, as well as settings outside the state
sector such as voluntary pre-schools, privately run nurseries or childminders. In
recent years there has been a major expansion of Early Years education and
childcare. The Foundation Stage which was first introduced in September 2000, and
covered children’s education from the age of 3 to the end of the reception year, when
children are aged 5. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) came into force in
September 2008, and is a single regulatory and quality framework for the provision of
learning, development, and care for children in all registered early years settings
between birth and the academic year in which they turn 5. The EYFS Profile
(EYFSP) is the statutory assessment of each child’s development and learning
achievements at the end of the academic year in which they turn 5.
In Wales, children are entitled to a free part-time place the term following a child’s
third birthday until they enter statutory education. These places can be in a
maintained school or a non-maintained setting such as a voluntary playgroup, private
nursery or childminder which is approved to provide education. The Foundation
Phase is a holistic developmental curriculum for 3 to 7-year-olds based on the needs
of the individual child to meet their stage of development. Statutory rollout of the
Foundation Phase framework started in September 2008 and the process was
completed in the 2011/12 school year.
The commitment in the Northern Ireland Executive’s Programme for Government is
to ‘ensure that at least one year of pre-school education is available to every family
that wants it.’ Funded pre-school places are available in statutory nursery schools
and units and in those voluntary and private settings participating in the Pre-School
Education Programme (PSEP). Places in the voluntary/private sector are part-time
whilst, in the statutory nursery sector, both full-time and part-time places are
available. Pre-school education is designed for children in the year immediately
before they enter Primary 1. Taking into account the starting age for compulsory
education in Northern Ireland this means children are aged between 3 years 2
months and 4 years 2 months in September in which they enter their final pre-school
year. The Programme incorporates a number of features designed to
promote high-quality pre-school education provision in all settings including a
curriculum which is common to all those involved in pre-school education
In Scotland, nationally funded learning provision typically starts with pre-school. Local
authorities have a duty to secure a part-time funded place for every child starting,
broadly speaking, from the beginning of the school term after the child’s third
birthday. Pre-school education can be provided by local authority centers, or private
and voluntary providers under a partnership arrangement. In Scotland, early years
education is called ante-pre-school education for those who start receiving their preschool
education in the academic year after their 3rd birthday until the end of that
academic year, and pre-school education for the year prior to their starting primary
school. As the current statutory starting age for pre-school is the first term after the
3rd birthday, this broadly means children have access to ante- and pre-school over 5
or 6 terms. For the youngest children in the cohort (born in January and February),
who would stand to receive less than this, parents can also choose to defer entry to
primary school, and local authorities are required to provide an additional year of preschool
education. For children with birthdays between September and December,
parents may request a deferment but it is at the discretion of local authorities to reach
a decision on a case by case basis.
In England, all schools are legally required to provide a broad and balanced
curriculum, and all maintained schools must teach the national curriculum for 5 – 16
The primary stage covers three age ranges: nursery (under 5), infant (5 to 7 or 8)
(key stage 1) and junior (up to 11 or 12) (key stage 2 but in Scotland and Northern
Ireland there is generally no distinction between infant and junior schools. In Wales,
although the types of school are the same, the Foundation Phase has brought
together what was previously known as the Early Years (from 3 to 5-year-olds) and
key stage 1 (from 5 to 7-year-olds) of the national curriculum to create one phase of
education for children aged between three and seven. In Scotland, learning in
primary schools is part of the broad general education phase of Curriculum for
Excellence (CfE), a coherent curriculum from 3-18. In England, primary schools
generally cater for 4-11 year olds. Some primary schools may have a nursery or a
children’s centre attached to cater for younger children. Most public sector primary
schools take both boys and girls in mixed classes. It is usual to transfer straight to
secondary school at age 11 (in England, Wales and Northern Ireland) or 12 (in
Scotland), but in England, some children make the transition via middle schools
catering for various age ranges between 8 and 14. Depending on their individual age
ranges middle schools are classified as either primary or secondary. In England, the
first primary academies (publicly funded state schools that are independent of local
authorities) opened in September 2010. In Wales, middle schools are a separate
sector as they have pupils from nursery to the end of secondary years.
The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy
amongst all pupils, as well as establishing foundations in science, mathematics and
other subjects. Children in England and Northern Ireland are assessed at the end of
key stage 1 and key stage 2. In Wales, all learners in their final year of Foundation
Phase and key stage 2 must be assessed through teacher assessments. In Scotland,
primary features learning across 8 curriculum areas, as well as a strong focus on the
development of literacy and numeracy skills and health and wellbeing. Teachers will
use a range of assessment methods to monitor learners’ progress, and a pupil profile
will be produced at P7 offering a summary statement of a learners’ best
achievements, skills, and knowledge.
In England, public provision of secondary education in an area may consist of a
combination of different types of school, the pattern reflecting historical circumstance
and the policy adopted by the local authority. Comprehensive schools largely admit
pupils without reference to ability or aptitude and cater for all the children in a
neighborhood, but in some areas they co-exist with other types of schools, for
example grammar schools. Academies, operating in England, are publicly funded
independent schools. Academies benefit from greater freedoms to help innovate and
raise standards. These include freedom from local authority control, the ability to set
their own pay and conditions for staff, freedom around the delivery of the curriculum
and the ability to change the lengths of terms and school days. The first academies
opened in 2002 with the objective of replacing poorly performing schools. Academies
were established and driven by external sponsors, to achieve a transformation in
education performance. The academies programme was expanded through
legislation in the Academies Act 2010. This enables all maintained primary,
secondary and special schools to apply to become an academy. Schools that are
performing well are able to become academies without a sponsor. The first of these
academies opened in September 2010 and are expected to work with
underperforming schools to help raise standards. Other schools can become
academies if they join an academy trust with an excellent school or an education
partner with a strong record of improvement. Sponsored academies remain an
essential part of the government’s drive to raise standards and improve education
opportunities for all pupils.
Free schools were introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition
following the 2010 general election as an extension of the academies programme
making it possible for parents, teachers, charities and businesses to set up their new
schools provided there is demand from parents for them to do so. The first free
schools opened in September 2011 and about a third are secondary schools.
University technical colleges are 14-19 institutions that provide a technical education
alongside GCSEs. They are employer and university led and these sponsors design
the curriculum and specialisms, provide mentoring and working experience
opportunities to equip the students with the skills that employers demand.
Studio schools also offer academic and vocational qualifications which are taught in a
practical and project-based way. Study is combined with work placements with local
and national employers who are involved in the school. The distinction between
studio schools and other 14-19 provision is that they have a strong emphasis on
practical work and enterprise. Though studio schools may have a ‘specialism’, they
will focus mainly on equipping students with a wide range of employability skills and a
core of academic qualifications.
In Wales, secondary schools take pupils at 11 years old until statutory school age
and beyond. Maintained secondary schools, middle schools and special schools are
run by the local authority. Independent schools and Pupil referral units are also
included in this data. There are currently no grammar schools or academies in
Wales. Education authority secondary schools in Scotland are comprehensive in
character and offer six years of secondary education; however, in remote areas there
are several two-year and four-year secondary schools.
In Northern Ireland, post-primary education consists of 5 compulsory years and two
further years if students wish to remain in school to pursue post GCSE / Level 2
courses to Level 3. Ministerial policy is that transfer from primary school should be
on the basis of non-academic criteria, however legally post primary schools can still
admit pupils based on academic performance.
Education authority secondary schools in Scotland are comprehensive in character
and offer six years of secondary education, with compulsory age being 16 (S4);
however, in some remote areas there are several schools which cover only some of
these six years, with primary provision also usually offered within the same
establishment. The broad general education phase of CfE is up to the end of S3,
providing a strong grounding for a move to study for qualifications in the senior phase
(S4-S6). A second pupil profile is produced at the end of S3.
At the end of this stage of education, pupils are normally entered for a range of
external examinations. Most frequently, these are GCSE (General Certificate of
Secondary Education) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and Standard Grades
in Scotland, although a range of other qualifications are available. In Scotland pupils
study for the National Qualifications (NQ) Standard grade (a two-year course leading
to examinations at the end of the fourth year of secondary schooling) and NQ Higher
grade, which requires at least a further year of secondary schooling. From 1999/00
additional new NQ were introduced in Scotland to allow greater flexibility and choice
in the Scottish examination system. NQ include Intermediate 1 & 2 designed primarily
for candidates in the fifth and sixth year of secondary schooling, however these are
used in some schools as an alternative to Standard Grades. Scotland’s qualifications
system is currently undergoing a period of change. Standard Grades will no longer
be available after 2012/13. New National 1 to National 5 qualifications will be
introduced in Scottish schools from 2013/14. These will be taken from the 4th year of
secondary school. Intermediate 1 and 2 qualifications will remain available until
2014/15. Higher and Advanced Higher qualifications will be retained and refreshed,
with the new refreshed qualifications available from 2014/15 and 2015/16
Further education may be used in a general sense to cover all non-advanced
courses taken after the period of compulsory education. It is post-compulsory
education (in addition to that received at secondary school), that is distinct from the
education offered in universities (higher education). It may be at any level from basic
skills training to higher vocational education such as City and Guilds or Foundation
A distinction is usually made between FE and higher education (HE). HE is education
at a higher level than secondary school. This is usually provided in distinct institutions
such as universities. FE in the United Kingdom therefore includes education for
people over 16, usually excluding universities. It is primarily taught in FE colleges,
work-based learning, and adult and community learning institutions. This includes
post-16 courses similar to those taught at schools and sub-degree courses similar to
those taught at higher education (HE) colleges (which also teach degree-level
courses) and at some universities.
Colleges in England that are regarded as part of the FE sector include General FE
(GFE) and tertiary colleges, Sixth form colleges, Specialist colleges (mainly colleges
of agriculture and horticulture and colleges of drama and dance) and Adult education
In addition, FE courses may be offered in the school sector, both in sixth form (16-19)
schools, or, more commonly, sixth forms within secondary schools. Since April 2012,
it has been possible to establish academies for 16-19 year olds.
In England, further education is often seen as forming one part of a wider learning
and skills sector, alongside workplace education, prison education, and other types
of non-school, non-university education and training. Since June 2009, the sector is
overseen by the new Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, although some
parts (such as education and training for 14-19 year olds) fall within the remit of the
Department for Education.
AS (Advanced Subsidiary) and A (Advanced) level qualifications are the traditional
academic qualifications offered by schools and colleges. Many students take AS and
A level qualifications in years 12 and 13 after completing their GCSEs, though adults
can take them too. Students can choose from a wide range of academic subjects, as
well as some work-related subjects.The primary purpose of A levels is to prepare
students for degree-level study; over 80% of students with 2 or more A levels go on
to higher education. The A level normally takes two years to complete full-time,
although they’re also available to study part-time.
A levels are made up of the AS level and the A2. Each part makes up 50 per cent of
the overall A level grade. The AS level is taken at the end of the first year of an A
level course and can be either a free standing qualification in its own right, or make
up the first half of a full A level. At the end of the AS year, students can choose to
continue to the second year to complete the full A level or not. In year two of a full A
level, students take the A2 which is designed to deepen the knowledge gained during
the AS level.
On 22 January 2013, the Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove, announced
plans to introduce changes to A level so that in future A levels will be linear with all
assessment at the end of two years. He also announced that universities would lead
the review of A levels to ensure that the qualification provides students with the
knowledge and skills they need to begin undergraduate study.
The reforms will give students a better experience of post-16 study, ensuring that
students are studying rigorous qualifications that provide them with the right skills
and knowledge to enable them to progress to university and employment. The first
new linear A levels are expected to be in schools for September 2014, ready for first
teaching in September 2015. It is likely that A levels requiring more substantial
changes and input from universities will be in schools for September 2015, ready for
first teaching in September 2016.
In Wales pupils may take A levels or other level 3 qualifications in a number of
different types of educational setting e.g. school sixth forms, further education
colleges, adult and community education centre or through work based learning. The
data for Wales only includes school sixth forms.
In Northern Ireland many pupils who remain in education post 16 remain in schools
studying towards A –Level qualifications, and other equivalent qualifications listed in
the entitlement framework. 170 of 216 post primary schools in Northern Ireland had
pupils in the final year of an A –Level or equivalent course of study in the 2011/12
In Scotland pupils tend to study Highers (SCQF level 6) in their fifth year at
secondary school, and in sixth year they may study more Highers and/or Advanced
Highers (SCQF level 7). They are aimed at those who have passed courses at
Standard Grade Credit level, or who have successfully completed a course at
Intermediate 2. Adults may also study Highers at college without needing previous
qualifications. Higher qualifications are usually necessary for entering university.
Higher education is defined as courses that are of a standard that is higher than GCE
A level, the Higher Grade of the SCE/National Qualification, GNVQ/NVQ level 3 or
the Edexcel (formerly BTEC) or SQA National Certificate/Diploma. There are three
main levels of HE course:
1. Postgraduate courses leading to higher degrees, diplomas and certificates
(including Doctorate, Masters (research and taught), Postgraduate diplomas
and certificates as well as postgraduate certificates of education (PGCE) and
professional qualifications) which usually require a first degree as entry
2. Undergraduate courses which include first degrees (honours and ordinary),
first degrees with qualified teacher status, enhanced first degrees, first
degrees obtained concurrently with a diploma, and intercalated first degrees
(where first degree students, usually in medicine, dentistry or veterinary
medicine, interrupt their studies to complete a one-year course of advanced
studies in a related topic).
3. Other undergraduate courses which include all other higher education
courses, for example SVQ or NVQ: Level 5, Diploma (HNC/D level for
diploma and degree holders), HND (or equivalent), HNC (or equivalent) and
SVQ or NVQ: Level 4 and Diplomas in HE.
As a result of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992, former polytechnics and
some other HEIs were designated as universities in 1992/93. Students normally
attend HE courses at HEIs, but some attend at FE colleges.
*The information is derived from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/255081/v01-2013ukes.pdf